|Species||Janka Hardness (pounds-force)|
|Lignum vitae / Guayacan / Pockenholz||4500|
|Patagonian Rosewood / Curupay / Angico Preto / Piptadenia Macrocarpa / Brazilian Tiger Mahogany||3840|
|Ipê / “Brazilian Walnut” / Lapacho||3684|
|African Pearlwood / Moabi Sometimes: Brazilian Cherry “Lite”||3680|
|Cumaru / “Brazilian Teak” sometimes: “Brazilian Chestnut,” “Tiete Chestnut,” “South American Chestnut,” “Southern Chestnut”||3540|
|Brazilian Redwood / Paraju / Massaranduba||3190|
|Red Mahogany, Turpentine||2697|
|Brazilian Cherry / Jatoba||2350|
|Santos Mahogany, Bocote, Cabreuva, Honduran Rosewood||2200|
|Sucupira sometimes “Brazilian Chestnut” or “Tiete Chestnut”||2140|
|Sydney Blue Gum||2023|
|Goncalo Alves / Tigerwood||1850|
|Hickory / Pecan, Satinwood||1820|
|Afzelia / Doussie / Australian Wormy Chestnut||1810|
|Wenge, Red Pine, Hornbeam||1630|
|True Pine, Timborana||1570|
|Sapele / Sapelli, Kupa’y||1510|
|Hard Maple / Sugar Maple||1450|
|Natural Bamboo (represents one species)||1380|
|Red Oak (Northern)||1290|
|Caribbean Heart Pine||1280|
|Yellow Birch, Iroko||1260|
|“Brazilian Mesquite” / Carapa Guianensis||1220|
|Carbonized Bamboo (represents one species)||1180|
|Brazilian Eucalyptus / Rose Gum||1125|
|Black Walnut/North American Walnut||1010|
|Black Cherry, Imbuia||950|
|Eastern Red Cedar||900|
|Southern Yellow Pine (Longleaf)||870|
|Mahogany, Honduran Mahogany||800|
|Southern Yellow Pine (Loblolly and Shortleaf)||690|
|Western White Pine||420|
|Eastern White Pine||380|
Differences Between Engineered Hardwood And Solid Hardwood
Engineered hardwood is different from solid hardwood in many respects, including materials, structural composition and resistance. Below is a detailed analysis of some selected differences.
Engineered hardwood is actually produced with three or more layers of HDF, MDF, with a real hardwood vaneer bonded together under heat and pressure.
Solid wood is milled from a real hardwood species, making it the sole material used in the making of the flooring.
Engineered hardwood is more suitable in high-moisture areas or in areas of frequent temperature changes than solid hardwood due to its “multiple-ply plank” manufacturing.
Solid wood is noted for adding overall structural strength to the building in which it is installed. The degree to which this is true depends upon the species.
Engineered hardwood is designed for optimal uniformity.
Solid wood’s uniformity varies depending on grade. Some grades allow for multiple knots, for example.
Engineered hardwood is constructed to be more dimensionally stable through multi-ply design. This allows greater resistance to temperature changes.
Solid wood is prone to expansion, warping, cupping, to a significant degree when exposed to temperature changes.
Resistance to moisture and heat
Engineered hardwood is surely a suitable choice when solid wood is not applicable due to increased moisture or heat. It is more resistant to both if compared to solid wood.
Solid wood is unsuitable for applications at any location with increased moisture or high temperatures. These could be areas which are not environmentally controlled, damp areas such as below-grade installations and over radiant heat.
Resistance to climatic changes
Engineered hardwood does not warp or cup during climatic changes. It is more resistant to higher moisture levels than solid flooring. It is a better choice for installation over radiant heat sources, damp basements, and at locations in rainy climates.
Solid wood generally expands and contracts a lot more than engineered wood during climatic changes, especially extremes in heat and cold and rainy season.
Effects of Temperature and Humidity on Hardwood Floors
How hardwood flooring is affected by temperature and humidity is something that all owners of hardwood flooring should know. Hardwood floors are an investment and will last for years if they are given the proper care.
It is natural for hardwood floors to swell in summertime, when the weather is hot and humid. As a result of swelling, which causes the edges of the wood planks to push up against each other, you may find that the wood boards of your floors are “cupping”, which means that the edges of the individual wood boards are higher than their centers causing a washboard-like effect on the floor. Other factors that may contribute to high humidity may include the mopping of wood floors with water, leaky plumbing, and damp sub-floors. Sometimes the high humidity can be counteracted by allowing the floors to dry out by bringing the room temperature up to eighty degrees long enough to allow the excessive moisture to dry out. It might also help to blow air across the floor, or to purchase a dehumidifier. In order to prevent permanent damage to hardwood floors, the sources of high humidity should be identified and corrected.
Never re-sand your hardwood floors until the humidity issues are resolved. If hardwood floors are re-sanded while the boards are expanded due to heat and moisture, the result may be “reverse cupping” or “crowning”, in which the centers of the hardwood boards are higher than the edges. This will become evident when the temperature and humidity drop and the wood boards contract and return to their original position.
The individual boards of hardwood may also contract during winter months due to lower temperatures and humidity. This will cause small cracks to open up between them. Hardwood floors with light stains may make the cracks stand out more. Also, usually the wider the planks of wood, the wider the gaps or cracks that may appear. The use of humidifiers, opening windows, and allowing moisture to escape into the air from dishwashers and laundry rooms can help alleviate the dryness of winter months. Keep in mind that gaps and cracks will tend to close up naturally as the temperatures and humidity increase over the course of summer and spring.
Swelling and shrinking related to seasonal temperate and humidity fluctuations are something that happens to all hardwood floors, even ones that were installed several years ago.
YD Bamboo Flooring Specification
Sustain-ably harvested optimum bamboo
For YD bamboo flooring and moldings we use only optimum bamboo known for its dense fibers and grown in the ZheJiang province of China. We also require that the bamboo is sustain-ably harvested at maturity, every 5-1/2 to 6 years. With these specifications, we avoid product performance problems like cupping and warping associated with young, soft and often cheap bamboo that is harvested too soon. As a result, products are exceptionally durable and our source plants remain vigorous and healthy harvest after harvest.
Environmentally conscious specifications
YD bamboo flooring specifications protect the environment around the world and in your home. The durable factory finish on our flooring is water-based and solvent-free. YD bamboo’s proprietary manufacturing adhesive emits less formaldehyde than allowed by U.S. OSHA, European E1, CARB Phase 1 and CARB Phase 2, and Japanese JIS/JAS emissions standards. As a company, we are moving swiftly toward exclusive use of adhesives that comply with LEED IEQ Credit 4.4 in all our products.
NWFA Installation Instructions
Your installation professional should follow the installation guidelines set forth by the NWFA. These are
industry standards and are available by calling 1-800-422-4556.
Before installation any concerns about the milling or grading of this product must be directed to and resolved
with the manufacturer. After the product is installed the customer assumes all responsibility. The manufacturer
will not be liable for any costs of product orreplacement if issues are not resolved prior to installation.
Job Site Conditions*
Kiln-dried flooring should be stored in an enclosed building that is well ventilated. Flooring should not be
exposed to excessive periods of high humidity or moisture. All concrete masonry,sheet rock and framing
members, paint, etc. should be thoroughly dry before flooring is delivered to the job site. The average moisture
content of the sub flooring should be within 4% of the moisture content of the flooring before installation.
From the time flooring is delivered and until occupancy, temperature and humidity should be maintained at
Installation over a concrete slab or radiant heat will void our warranty. Plywood, 5/8” or ¾” performance rated
products are preferred. Also, ¾” OSB is an acceptable substrate. Particle board of any thickness is not
Laying and Fastening the Flooring*
Cover the sub floor with a vapor retardant such as 15lb asphalt felt orrosin paper, overlapping the ends 2-4”.
Direction of the flooring should be at right angles to the joists. For strip flooring (3 ¼” width and narrower) use
a 2” barbed flooring cleat or staple. Spacing between nails should be 8-10” apart. Nailing is required within 2”
of the end joints and at least 2 nails are required per board. End joints should be staggered at least 6” apart. An
expansion gap of ¾” should be left around the walls.
Maintain the relative humidity in the areas with hardwood flooring. Excessive swings in humidity will cause
the flooring to crack, shrink or expand. The recommended range in relative humidity is 35%-50%. Use
protector pads underneath chairs and heavy furniture. Place mats by exterior doors and high traffic areas use
rugs that allow the floor to breath (avoid rubber backed rugs). Vacuum or sweep floors to remove loose dirt
then clean with Hardwood Floor Cleaner available through your flooring installer or distributor.
*Please refer to the NWFA Instruction Manualfor more detailed instructions.